Kidney TransplantDiseased or non-functioning kidneys of a patient are removed and replaced by a healthy, functioning kidney from a living or brain-dead donor In a kidney transplant surgery. Those patients who are suffering from chronic kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) opt for this surgery.
The kidneys may be damaged by a disease, disorder, or a congenital condition. The most common causes of ESRD are Chronic Glomerulonephritis, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cystic renal disease. The kidneys are no longer capable of adequately removing fluids and wastes from the body once they are damaged, or of maintaining the proper level of certain kidney-regulated chemicals in the bloodstream. If long-term dialysis or a kidney transplant is not carried out this condition may prove to be fatal.
The Kidney Transplant surgeries are of two major types.
1) Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery: The kidney is taken from a living donor in this type of a Kidney Transplant surgery. A close family member or spouse who is compatible and willing to donate can donate Kidney. Before accepting a candidate as donor the renal transplant team thoroughly evaluates the donor. A person below 18 years of age (minor) cannot be considered as a donor As per Indian Transplant Law. it is mandatory to obtain Approval of the authorization committee, appointed by the government to undergo transplant surgery.
2) Cadaveric or Deceased Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery: The kidney is taken from a person who is brain-dead In this type of a Kidney Transplant surgery and family members have consented to donate their organs. For such a type of Kidney Transplant Surgery in India there is a very long list of patients waiting. This type of Kidney Transplant Surgery is generally not recommended for foreign/overseas patients as the waiting time is quite long and hence.
Important Note: The donor must be a close relative or family member only in a Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery. The Renal Transplant Team determines the suitability of the donor for the donation after studying the various aspects and performing a series of medical tests.
EvaluationA comprehensive physical evaluation is done on the patient. Radiological tests, urine tests, and psychological evaluation is carried out in addition to the compatibility testing.
To evaluate their suitability for donation Living kidney donors also undergo a complete medical history and physical examination. On both donor and recipient Extensive blood tests are performed. To tissue type for antigen matches, and confirm that blood types are compatible blood samples are used.
ProcedureThe new kidney is placed on the lower right or left side of the patient’s abdomen where to nearby blood vessels it is surgically connected. The artery and vein of the new kidney will be attached just above one of the legs to an artery and vein in the lower part of the abdomen. To allow urine to pass out of patient’s body the new kidney's ureter, the tube that links the kidney to the bladder, will be connected to the bladder. The kidney is placed in this position so that it is easily connected to blood vessels and the bladder.
BenefitsA successful kidney transplant can improve the quality of life of the patient drastically for a patient suffering with chronic kidney failure or end stage renal disease. The patient would be able to return to a more normal lifestyle after the surgery and have more control over your daily living. The patient can go for a normal diet and more normal fluid intake. After the kidney transplantation the patient need not be dependent on dialysis. After transplantation Anemia, a common problem with kidney failure, might be corrected. The patient after kidney transplantation might have to take fewer blood pressure medications. if he/she has hypertension (high blood pressure).
RisksJust as any other major transplantation surgery the risks of kidney transplantation are the same. But kidney transplants are very successful with few complications because of years of experience, research, and improved medicines that prevent rejection. Some of the risks associated with a Kidney Transplantation Surgery are:
- Breathing problems.
- Medications Side effects
- Due to medicine intake after the kidney transplant lowered immunity (body's ability to fight infection).
- Risk of the patient’s body rejecting the new kidneys. Proper medication is given to patient in order to prevent rejection.
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- Routine lab tests
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- Hospital stay after the said period.
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