Heart Bypass SurgeryBypass Surgery is also known as Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). This type of heart surgery creates a new route or ‘bypass’ around the section of your blocked artery thus improving the flow of the blood to your heart. For creating the by-pass, a section of vein from the leg or an artery from your chest or forearm is used in this procedure. The flow of blood is thus restored to your heart muscle.
CausesThe deposition of fat is the primary reason for the growth of blockages in the arteries, this process is called as Artherosclerosis. these blockages obstruct the free flow of the blood to the various parts of the heart leading to severe chest pain (known as angina) or even a heart attack in the later stages.
- even during light exercise or at rest there is severe chest pain
- contamination of one or more coronary arteries, improper functioning of left ventricle (commonly known as heart’s main pump).
- severe blockage in left main coronary artery, which supplies blood to the left ventricle
- when angioplasty isn’t advisable in Artery blockage, previously unsuccessful angioplasty or stent placement, re – narrowing of artery after an angioplasty
ProcedureA day prior to the surgery you will be admitted in the hospital. A series of tests such as routine blood tests, ECG, a Chest X-ray and an angiography would be performed on you, to obtain a clear picture of your health status. atleast 2-3 weeks before the surgery you need to quit smoking .
You are required to be empty stomach on the day of the surgery. For a painless procedure you will be given anaesthesia. To ensure blood flow through your body while your heart is stopped for some time a heart-lung machine would be attached during the surgery. From the leg or chest wall or the forearm a long piece of vein or an artery (called as graft) is taken. One end of the graft is attached to the ascending aorta and other end is attached to a coronary artery below the blockage.
The time taken (depending upon the number of bypasses needed) for this procedure is usually between 2-6 hours.
New techniques in Bypass SurgeryOur network hospitals follow the latest advancement and new techniques. The need for large incisions or a heart-lung machine is reduced with these techniques. Shorter hospital stay, quick recovery, less chances of infection, less blood loss etc benefit the patient.
Some of the routinely performed new techniques at our network hospitals are:
Off-pump or beating-heart surgery: a heart- lung machine is not used in this type of bypass surgery, thus giving the procedure its name Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (OPCAB). With the use of special equipment to stabilize the area of the heart on which the procedure is performed this procedure allows surgery to be done on the still-beating heart. In certain types of patients there has been recorded reduction in side effects with the Off-pump bypass surgery.
Minimally Invasive Surgery: In this procedure, through several smaller incisions in the chest the surgeon performs coronary bypass. Only when certain conditions exist is this technique used. It is best to use a conventional approach if multiple coronary arteries need to be worked on. Port-access or key-hole surgeries are variations of minimally invasive surgery.
After SurgeryYou would be taken to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) once the surgery is completed, , where you would be kept under observation for 1-3 days. After 7-8 days you may discharged from the hospital. You need to make some lifestyle changes like having diet with low fat and cholesterol, regular exercises etc after the surgery. An essential element of the overall treatment plan is Follow care. To detect any changes in health as early as possible regular check-ups are advised.
Rehabilitation and PhysiotherapyAfter the treatment world-class cardiac rehabilitation and physiotherapy centres are utilized for carrying out Physiotherapy sessions to help patients to restore their normal life.You can recover faster, feel better and develop a healthier lifestyle with Cardiac rehabilitation when combined medicine.
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